A Q&A with Sustainability Consultant and Educator Frank Millero

Everything goes back to that word, ‘value’. What do we value? And how do we use all of these tools to support our values? “

A Q&A with Sustainability Consultant and Educator Frank Millero

Spotlight articles shine a light on designers and design materials we admire. Our founder and principal designer Rebeccah Pailes-Friedman has met many wonderful designers in her time in the industry, and in our Spotlight interviews we ask them about their work, their design journey, and what inspires them. In this interview we spoke with Frank Millero, a design and sustainability consultant as well as design educator. He has been helping companies with sustainable initiatives for over twelve years and he has taught a range of design courses at Pratt Institute for nearly twenty.

Frank Millero is on the Board of Directors for SERVV, a nonprofit dedicated to fair and ethical trade, where he works to empower small-scale global artisans and farmers. Trained as an industrial designer at Pratt Institute, he brings his passion for sustainability and his boundless curiosity to all of his projects. We asked Frank about prototyping and designing for sustainability, his history as a design educator, and the future of sustainable design.

Photo courtesy of Frank Millero

Q: What are you working on that’s interesting to you at the moment?

A: For me teaching is endlessly interesting. I got to teach a design research class last fall and that was a fun opportunity to think about what my research process is in the work that I do. In terms of design work, recently I got to work with a nonprofit called Mayan Hands. They work with weavers in Guatemala to produce textiles. What I really enjoyed about it was that I got to learn what the techniques were and how they were done. I wanted to create something that was really culturally sensitive because they were using a traditional technique, but I didn’t want the project to be necessarily traditional. How do you find that compromise between creating something new but also honoring the tradition?

The good thing was that the weavers were really excited to try new things, so I worked on developing color palettes and designs based on the biogeography of Guatemala. That was a point of departure that made a connection to the land and to the people. It was a fun project in many ways. I got to learn about their textiles, but also about Guatemala.

Q: Could you tell us about one of your favorite projects and share why it is important to you?

A: In Cambodia I worked with the nonprofit SERVV to come up with designs and design ideas. I was there for a month and I got to see how they make things. They were using large, traditional wood looms and they did cut-and-sew. The program was set up to help support women, especially women in farming communities. Part of the year they didn’t have any income from farming and so this provided them with another source of income.

One of the things that we did that was a little bit of a departure from the traditional techniques was creating something that was quick and easy to make. They had some screen printing capacity, so I worked with the director to find local canvas from the market and we used the screen printing techniques that they knew to create tote bags. It was a simple project but it was great because it was a teaching tool for people who were learning to cut and sew simple constructions. It was also really affordable to make and they could make a lot, so it was profitable.

I think the most interesting thing about that project was connecting directly to the people who were making the product and learning about their culture, learning about the way that they were producing things. I knew  a lot about the environmental dimension of sustainability but this gave me an opportunity to think about the social dimension of sustainability and to realize how important that was.

Q: What is sustainable design?

A: Sustainable design is a fascinating challenge of creating high value products and services that consider environmental, social, and economic factors throughout the life cycle. I use that phrase ‘high value’. How you define value is important because there are always so many trade-offs when you’re thinking about what impacts there are, what you have to live with, and what you can work towards. It depends on so many different factors. 

One of the things I realized when thinking about that word value is that the designers can’t really decide this on their own. It has to be something that’s built into the design brief at the beginning, so that everyone who’s working on the project understands what the values are. Having that discussion early is important. When you get to a point where things conflict and you have to have trade-offs, how do you make those decisions?

Q: How can we design with sustainability in mind?

A: That part is fairly straightforward to me. I think it’s about education and awareness first. Like any aspect of our design process, the more we understand it, the better we can achieve what we’re looking for. Education is also about asking a lot of questions. 

When I go to a factory, I try to ask as many questions as I can to find out what they are doing and what they are hoping to improve. What are the best practices in their industry? Certifications are helpful because they help you understand what some of the best practices are, but not all partners will be certified or have the money to be certified. So it’s really important to ask them directly about their practices, and that goes for social practices, too.

Take some of the textile vendors I worked with early on in my career; I would ask them if they had organic cotton and some of them had no idea what that even meant. So you educate them and explain what it means and why it’s important. We would have them create two samples or at least cost out conventional cotton and organic cotton. It was always a bit of a battle with the merchants to say, it’s 20 cents more but this is really worth it. Sometimes it took creating a whole story around it to get people to understand the value and importance of it. 

Some people just graduating and entering a job might feel like they don’t have a lot of say in the decision making, but they do have an opportunity to communicate and propose ideas. They can find somebody who’s a mentor within the organization, maybe higher up, who can be an advocate for their ideas. It’s important that you have people at different levels in an organization who are committed to sustainability.

It’s also important to realize that everyone and every organization is going to be at different stages of incorporating these ideas. Wherever you’re at, it’s you need to set goals, figure out how you’re going to measure them, and hold yourself accountable. The more specific they are the better, because then you can measure them in some way, at least qualitatively. But hopefully quantitatively, too. 

Q: Could you share some products that you think are good examples of sustainable design?

A:  I worked with an organization called Get Paper in Nepal. The products were high quality and they had parts of their business that helped support the other parts. One part was handmade paper and the other part was more conventional paper-making. They produced a lot of packaging.

They got off-cuts from a local T-shirt factory and used that cotton as raw material for their handmade paper. They incorporated artisans in the governance of the organization, and that is a really unusual way to govern your organization. We think of most organizations as top-down, but more and more there are opportunities for people to think about cooperative organizations and new kinds of economic models. I thought this one was great because the artisans were on the decision-making panel. It wasn’t just outsiders coming in and designing things, the product was also coming from the artisans themselves. 

They had this cool community program where they would count how much paper they used per year, translate that into trees, go to a local area of degraded land and everyone in the community—the school would be closed for the day, the factory would be closed for the day—would go plant trees. 

Over time this helped to increase the water table because without the trees there was a lot of erosion. The community really saw the value in the tree planting because they immediately saw the effect. There are a lot of tree planting programs in the world and I think that they’re great in general, but when it’s directly connected to the community I think it’s even more powerful. It really shows that connection. 

Another example: Bill McKibben has an organization called Third Act. This is an organization to activate people who are over 60 to support sustainability projects. His idea was that we have this large population, some of them are starting to retire but they have all of this wisdom and experience. They were also passionate in the 60’s and 70’s about environmental and social causes. He was tapping into that history and also their skills. The idea was that everyone should be involved in this kind of activism. What’s amazing is that they vote, so they have a lot of influence in terms of policy.

Q: When did sustainability become a focus for you as a designer and what inspired that specialization?

A: My background was in biology, and I spent 10 years working as a staff biologist and exhibit developer at the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco. This was a very important starting point for my career. I feel like I was practicing sustainability in some ways there and I didn’t even know it. The mantra of the museum is, “Here is being created a community museum, dedicated to awareness.”

While I was there I got more and more interested in design. I took design classes at night through UC Berkeley: furniture classes, different kinds of design classes, and also art classes. Victor Papanek’s Design for the Real World was really influential for me. There were a few books I read at the time that got me interested in sustainable design, one was The Ecology of Commerce by Paul Hawken, and another was Natural Capitalism by Paul Hawken and Hunter and Amory Lovins. Another really influential book was Biomimicry by Janine Benyus.

This was all in the late 90’s. And so I thought, Well, you know, I have a biology background. There are all of these interesting opportunities to think about connections, and that’s what led me to Pratt for my graduate program. While I was there, I was interested in looking at the intersection of science and design. I wasn’t focused so much on sustainability but it was an underlying current. Later I was invited to teach a junior studio about sustainable design at Pratt. It was challenging because they told me just a couple of weeks before the class started, and this was one of my first times teaching. It was an early prototype. I got interested in this idea of What tools do students need?What tools do designers need to help them get engaged in this topic and care about it? That was a key starting point for me.

Q: Could you talk about the prototyping process in the context of a sustainable design project? What does sustainable prototyping look like?

A: I think that it’s never too early to prototype and test out your ideas, to test your assumptions. Sometimes at the Exploratorium I would just take a table out, put a microscope on it with a video monitor, go outside and get some pond water, and put it on the microscope and invite people to look at it. I would ask, What do you notice? What’s going on? This was really primitive prototyping to get ideas for the experience.

Keeping people on the same page is also important. I’ve been at organizations where designers say, we’re not going to show it to them yet, because they’re afraid that it’s going to get shut down early. You have to have check-ins along the way, and this is a challenging balance. You want to have some creative freedom, you don’t want to be shut down early, but you do want to make sure that you’re checking in along the way. That’s what prototyping allows you to do: create new directions and be really collaborative. 

I think that the prototyping impacts are small compared to large production runs, so I don’t worry too much about it. It’s a good investment, basically. It is important to look at the issues of toxicity, because there are some materials, especially model-making materials, that do have health impacts for the people involved. If you’re ordering the model, you are still responsible for those health impacts, because somebody else could be exposed. 

Finding partners who have best practices in the industry, have protection for workers, reduce the amount of exposure…all of those things are really important questions to ask. There are different types of prototypes— looks-like, feels-like, works-like—and you may not need something that’s really beautiful if you’re just creating a works-like prototype. Communicating that to producers might help to see what the alternatives are.

Really simple materials like paper tape and glue are some of my best prototyping tools. There are also opportunities for you to recycle and reuse some of the materials you have. I like to use cardboard, it seems like there’s an endless supply of cardboard from boxes. These kinds of materials can get you to where you want.

Q: What inspired you to become a design educator?

A: I’m the middle child. I have an older sister and a younger brother, so I got to learn from them but also to teach both of them at the same time, and I really enjoyed that. My brother is five years younger than I am, so he was a little kid, and I enjoyed that process of seeing him learn new things

When I was in high school, I had a job at a grocery store as a bag boy, and this was in Miami so it was super hot. I’d have to go out and collect the shopping carts, and I had to wear a tie and mop the floor. And I was making, I don’t know, three dollars an hour. And one of my teachers asked me if I wanted to be a math tutor. I got paid twice as much, I was in the air conditioning, and I got to work with my peers, helping them with math. This was a really exciting experience for me. 

When I was in college, I tutored for Upward Bound. I was really inspired by the students because no one in their family had gone to college, and they just needed a little bit of help. They were eager to learn, and to see somebody with that passion for learning was so exciting for me. 

At the Exploratorium I had an opportunity to teach people as well. We had three different types of interns;  post-college interns, college-age interns, and high school interns. They would all be responsible for teaching each other, and I helped teach all of them. This idea of creating mentorship among the groups was really inspiring to see.

Q: How does your work as an educator inform your consulting work and vice versa?

A: I mentioned already that my experience at SERVV opened my eyes to the social dimension of sustainability. I realized in teaching my class that I was focused a lot on environmental issues but I hadn’t really thought about the social dimension, or intersection of the two. What is environmental justice? What happens when these two forces collide? 

My experiences with commercial clients has also taught me so much. I go to visit factories, to work on a team to understand the business side of the retail world – that’s a whole different language. So much to learn there. I used to go to the store and talk to all the salespeople and ask them, What’s selling? What do people like? Why don’t they like it? Getting the vibe from them. When I first started asking them, they were reluctant because they knew that I had designed it and they didn’t want to insult me. But then, over time, after we had a friendship, they would be really honest.

I bring in samples to my classrooms and say, This is what happened, these are the things that could go wrong in production. So here’s different stages of prototyping, and here’s what ended up in the store. I’ve been connected through my work to so many different design professionals, and I invite them into the classroom as well.

Q: How has the conversation around sustainability in design changed over the course of your career?

A: I think for sure there’s been a lot more discussion about sustainability. It was not really talked about so much 30 years ago. More discussion has created more awareness, and there are companies trying to do new things. There’s also some greenwashing that happens, too, because companies don’t want to be shamed for doing bad things. I guess that’s my concern; while it’s being talked about a lot more, you have to be even more vigilant about the trustworthiness of the message.

We also have to look at the bigger picture of consumption patterns. While individual products might be made with safer, better materials, a bigger picture is: what is our culture of consumption? What will happen if we don’t dramatically change this culture? Other countries are modeling their behavior on us in the U.S. and the Western world, and this is troubling to me, too.

Q: What do you see in the future of sustainable design?

A: I hope that it’s a point of inspiration for designers in the future. Up to this point, it’s been this sort of burden, Oh and it has to be sustainable. As if it’s going to squelch your creativity in some way. I think that if designers have a new point of view that sustainable design will give you new ideas and new points of inspiration, then that will be a different kind of attitude shift. That’s what I try to develop in my class as an understanding; that all these products have issues for sure, but we have an opportunity as creative designers and thinkers to come up with new approaches, and that should produce new aesthetics, new opportunities. 

I also hope that sustainability is integrated earlier in the design process. People think way too late about these issues, and it’s hard. Things get locked in really early. If it can get more integrated into design briefs earlier on in the process, we’ll have much better outcomes. 

I hope that designers can integrate more qualitative or quantitative approaches that can help them in their decision making, like the LCA. You can model something and see how well it achieves its goal. Is this new transportation route better? Well, you can mathematically find that out. It’s not unknowable. 

Designers can’t work alone, and corporations can’t work alone. It has to be governments, nonprofit corporations, consumers…everyone has to be involved in this in some way. And I think this is one of the things that’s concerning: some of the messaging is that, Oh, it’s the consumer’s fault because they’re not recycling properly, or whatever it is. Pushing it on people. Why did you buy this fast fashion? Well, I know why: it’s cheap and it’s available. So the practice of blaming people for all of these problems is something that I hope will change as well.

I see some really great opportunities in terms of understanding what environmental and social impacts are by having enough data, using AI and machine-learning, and having somebody in a sense smarter than us analyze the data to find the patterns and trends. These technologies can provide real benefits, they already have in terms of things related to climate change and biodiversity laws. 

Everything goes back to that word, value. What do we value? And how do we use all of these tools to support our values? 

I like to think about our connection to our history and to cultural heritage. I see young designers being interested in this idea of craft, of connection to their own personal past.  What’s special about their local community, or what’s special about their personal history, can be a component of the design process, something that they value. Diverse voices and perspectives being heard in the design process is an aspect of sustainable design as well. It’s an opportunity to have lots of different ideas and perspectives come together to create these solutions.

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A Q&A with 3D Printing Maven Christina Perla

“I think there needs to be a national leader where people can go and pick up their 3D prints.”

A Q&A with 3D Printing Maven Christina Perla

Spotlight articles shine a light on designers and design materials we admire. Our founder and principal designer Rebeccah Pailes-Friedman has met many wonderful designers in her time in the industry, and in our Spotlight interviews we ask them about their work, their design journey, and what inspires them. In this interview we spoke with Christina Perla, the co-founder and CEO of Makelab, an innovative 3D printing and design service that is democratizing 3D printing.

Christina Perla is on the Board of Directors for Women in 3D Printing, where she works to engage the global 3D printing community and inspire more women to join the male-dominated industry. Trained as an industrial designer at Pratt Institute, she brings an innovative, problem-solving mindset to the entrepreneurial task of growing her business, which she founded with her husband Manny Mota in 2017. We asked Christina about her favorite 3D printing materials, the past, present, and future of 3D printing, and diversity in the industry.

3D Printing expert Christina Perla poses for a portrait
Christina Perla is the co-founder and CEO of Makelab, an innovative 3D printing and design service. Photo courtesy of Christina Perla.

Q: What are you working on that’s interesting to you at the moment?

A: I am focused on the business aspect, so I’m thinking about what the midterm to long term vision looks like and how we can execute that.  I’m really focused on How does the business scale? What locations are we going to be in next? And how are we going to make that happen?  I’m fundraising—it’s at the tail end, which is great—and I’m shifting my focus to Who do we need to execute this? How do we execute this? What are the steps and what do the different markets look like in each region?

We’re looking at a lot of major cities. Anywhere where design and engineering is happening is a good place for Makelab to be. I’m taking cues from different universities and institutes that offer industrial design or that offer mechanical engineering degrees. I also look at nonprofit organizations like IDSA [Industrial Designers Society of America] and SME [Society of Manufacturing Engineers] on the manufacturing side, ASME [The American Society of Mechanical Engineers] on the mechanical engineering side, and Women in 3D Printing. Where they have local chapters is another indication of where we should be. We triangulate.

Q: Could you tell us about one of your favorite projects and share why it is important to you?

A: I personally love when Full Circle Brands come through the door, they’re pretty much an OXO competitor. Their products are in a lot of U.S. homes. I was just at a colleague’s house in Portland and I saw that her scrubber for washing dishes was Full Circle. I was like, No way! We print for them all the time! It’s a lot of recognizable objects that feel very ID [Industrial Design]. I love those projects. I feel like I can see their process in what they’re printing. It makes me feel like I’m back in ID in a way, and contributing to that process.

Q: How did Makelab start?

A: Very serendipitously. My entire career was very flowy, one thing after the next. My last job was actually working for Rebeccah at Interwoven as an industrial designer. A good friend of mine was also working there with me and I caught this bug, this entrepreneurial bug, and I couldn’t shake it. I realized, I need to scratch this itch so I don’t regret anything. I need to try.  So I quit, I gave my two weeks notice with Rebeccah, and I started to take on my own clients, doing industrial design freelancing. 

Manny [Christina’s husband and business partner] joined me in my effort, so we were doing it together. We used 3D printing a lot, and we found this place that we loved. We were their top 3D printing customer and about a year into freelancing, in 2017, there was an opportunity to acquire the assets of that business. So we did it! We got it all together, and the whole idea was that the 3D printing company, now Makelab, was going to fund the Design Consultancy Firm Startup Dream. 

Two years later, in 2019, is when 3D printing really took over. We had all these brands coming in the door and we found that they kept coming back. They were happy. The business grew 3X that year and that’s when we started thinking, Okay, I think this is the way to go. We became passionate about building a business and applying all of our skills towards that. It was hard to let go of ID because we both spent many years doing consulting but, to be honest, I don’t think we were the consulting type. This was a better fit. 

Q: Your logo is fantastic, did you design it in-house?

A: Yes! Manny drew some out and we had a bunch of logos all over the place. He was definitely doing the whole sketching iterative process on that. We saw one we liked and he just kept going on it until it was what you see now. I digitized it and that was that. We haven’t touched it since.

Q: What were some of your early challenges after launching the company? 

A: The things that no one tells you about business, that no one prepares you for. Even business school doesn’t really prepare you for starting a business. They teach you strategy but they don’t teach you basic things like how to hire, how to fire, how to recruit, best practices, things like that. How to manage people, how to really roadmap and get to a point where you can delegate effectively. That management and leadership aspect was my biggest learning curve. I’ve focused on it so I’ve become a lot better than I was on day one, but that’s the thing that no one talks to you about; all the nitty-gritty behind-the-scenes, the admin stuff, the non-glamorous stuff.

I’ve always been someone who asks for help. I try to quickly—very, very quickly—identify what I don’t know. I try to look from the 80,000 foot view to see what’s missing, what gaps are there? That’s where my designer brain comes into play. I’m able to see those different views because that’s what we did at Pratt: you went in and you went out and you went in and you went out. There was a lot of repositioning so you could see different facets of a situation, or a problem, or a part, or any sort of product. It’s the same thing with business. I try to see from that 80,000 foot view, the airplane view.

Also, if I didn’t know something I would Google it. If I wanted to hear it from somebody, I’d reach out and just start talking about the things that I’m learning. People would say, Oh, you should talk to my friend! Oh, you should talk to my advisor! Oh, I should connect you! And that’s how it starts. All of a sudden you have this network, this community of people who are vested, who want to see you succeed and who are rooting for you. 

Q: At what point was the vision you had for Makelab clear?

A: The 3D printing industry is very much like the plumbing industry: there’s no clear winner in the space. You have the 3D printing marketplaces where they don’t actually print anything, so if I—as a designer—am going to print at one of these marketplaces sites, not only do I have to have it shipped, I don’t know where it’s printing. I don’t know what practices they have. I don’t know how they handle my data, which is especially important if it’s protected by an NDA. I’ve been on the manufacturing partner side of those networks and there’s not very much control. The same goes for quality. 

In 2019 we had this vision. It’s cheesy but I envisioned the T-Mobile map, like cell phone coverage but instead: 3D printing coverage. I think there needs to be a national leader where people can go and pick up their 3D prints. You know the team that works there because this is part of your process, it matters for you. If we don’t deliver, your timeline is messed up, your budget is messed up. You need to have those close proximity relationships in place. We experienced that ourselves as designers, which is why we stuck with that one location in Bushwick that had a really small team, and we would drive over and pick up our prints for each job. 

So we had this vision of the whole country—and then the world—having all these Makelabs, and then we thought, Maybe we don’t want to own everything. We realized that we could leverage a franchise model to expand quickly and enable others to start their own businesses. We can give those who are interested, who don’t want to start from zero, the tools to help them get started. It’s a lot of systems designed for mutual success and alignment.

I’ve always been a people-person. Coaching and mentoring, I love that, either on the receiving or the giving end. This whole model of how we’re going to scale Makelab is core to my personal passions, which is great.

Q: Could you talk about 3D printing as a sustainable strategy?

A: In terms of carbon footprint, 3D printing is a lot lighter than many alternatives. It has less of a carbon footprint than traditional manufacturing. You do have supports but there are some technologies where you don’t need to print with supports. Even if you do, that material is often 100% recyclable and it feeds back into the raw material of the machines. There is much more impact in injection molding and the supply chain for getting the raw materials for that. If you think about CNCing, you’re taking a block of something and carving away at it, all that waste is created. 

With 3D printing, for the most part, you print only what you need. There are supports, yes, but it’s still pretty minimal and supply chains are localized.

Q: Makelab offers a blend of printing and design services, what does the design side of your business look like?

A: We call it design for marketing concept creation. From an industrial designer’s or mechanical engineer’s perspective, we help with the file. That means that there are already dimensions associated, there’s already a proof of concept, all of that. We don’t do concept creation. The concept development part that an ID person would normally tackle, we don’t do. What we found, though, is that sometimes in the iterative process our customers go so fast. They don’t have much time and they’re juggling multiple projects, so they may not have time to revisit something to make sure it’s scaled up a little bit bigger, or that the walls are a little bit thickened. That’s where we come in. We consider ourselves to be gap fillers on the design side.

Q: What are the core uses for 3D printing that you see at this point, is it mainly prototyping? 

A: It is a lot of prototyping. I think part of that is because Manny and I come from this world of product design and development. We inherently attract that, and I think our brand does a good job of attracting that as well, so that’s what we’ve seen. The use cases of 3D printing  go way beyond that, though. You can do prototyping for planes, for rockets. You can create parts that will go up into space. 3D printing offers the availability of unique customization, mass customization. In any given industry there are components that reflect industry standards. A lot of that can be disrupted, you can create more unique parts. You can create more unique designs in these antiquated industries, which is interesting.

Q: What are some of your favorite 3D printing materials and what do you like about them? 

A: Oh my gosh. I’m so excited about metal! I think metal is so, so cool. The technology still needs work, we need success rates to be higher and failure rights to be lower, but it’s such a promising material. You can do precious metals. You can print stainless steel and aluminum, and there’s copper, which is great for models that you need to show or get plated. I’m also excited for nylon powder as well because you don’t need supports for that one. You can do much more complex geometry and it’s strong. 

Q: It can be intimidating to get into 3D printing. For someone who is curious, where do you think is a good place to start?

A: I’m going to be biased and say: Makelab! 

I’ve been in this industry for five six years now and even today, when I go on those online marketplaces I was talking about before, I feel dumb. I don’t know what the scientific names of the materials are, there’s nothing I can relate to. A big part of what we’re doing is about how we present all of this technical information. It’s about how we package it, how we use analogies, and how we explain it to people. It might be a simple thing like calling a material rubber-like or silicone-like and giving the Shore Hardness. Things like that make it easy for you as a new user of the technology to understand your options. When people come in for a materials consultation and they see all the samples, there are a lot of light bulbs that go off. That’s what I like to see. I think we do a good job of being the first entry point into the industry.

Q: What changes have you seen since you started in the 3D printing industry?

A: Metal has become really big. So have industrial use cases, and we’re getting closer to end-use part manufacturing, at least for some parts. Cost is still something that needs to be figured out. It’s too expensive to manufacture everything via additive [manufacturing]. It’s like saying that everything needs to be injection molded. It’s just not going to happen.

There are different manufacturing processes for a reason and this is one of those processes. It’s exciting but it’s not going to take over. What I see is a lot more large-scale projects. I love to see rocket parts being 3D printed, I love to see homes being 3D printed. I think that’s such a valid use case. It can replace drywall. It’s structure. Those those use cases are great and I think we’re going to see more of them. I think you’ll start to see more small, custom things. Manny bought something off of Amazon once, a hook for the home. A portion of it was 3D printed because it was so custom that it wasn’t worth setting up the [injection] mold. It was from a smaller company so it didn’t make sense to go the injection molding route, instead of millions of units to produce they only had hundreds of thousands, or even less. At that point, 3D printing technology makes sense.

Q: What do you see in the future of 3D printing?

A: You know what’s interesting? I think about this industry more in terms of business use cases than consumer use cases. In 2012 there was a big focus on consumers, there was this narrative that one day everything in your home is going to be 3D printed. But the technology is not really consumer-ready. It’s like saying that vacuum forming is going to be in everyone’s home. There is a machine to make that process more friendly but…my family over in Pittsburgh is not going to be getting that machine and trying to make everything in their home out of that machine. It’s the same with 3D printing. It’s similar to a sewing machine: super cheap, super accessible, but that doesn’t mean that you’re going to make all your clothes by yourself. 

Q: Could you talk about diversity in the 3D printing industry?

A: I could talk about that forever! I’m on the board for Women in 3D printing, I’ve been really involved with the organization ever since 2018. The stats are that women make up 12-13 % of the industry, which is abysmal. You go to these trade shows and you can definitely tell that I stand out, Manny and I both. We look like designers, we think like designers, we ask questions like designers, we converse like designers. We stand out. And if 12-13 % is the number for gender, I’m pretty sure the numbers for diversity are much, much worse.

That’s one thing about me and Manny that attracts customers too, I think, because they look for these things. They want to work with diverse partners. We’re both first generation immigrants. He comes from the D.R. and I come from China. I was adopted but my mom is also an immigrant. I don’t know the exact percentage for our team but we only have one team member that is not first generation or immigrant. And we didn’t even intend for this! It’s just part of how we are and how we talk about our culture. We’ve become known for celebrating these things and we make a point of it, it’s very important to us. I hope that we see more diversity in this industry, and I hope that we can be part of leading that change with our model.

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A Q&A with E-textile Expert Maddy Maxey

“I love it when we know a project could really help someone, and our technology can make it more comfortable or work better”

A Q&A with E-textile Expert Maddy Maxey

Spotlight articles shine a light on designers and design materials we admire. Our founder and principal designer Rebeccah Pailes-Friedman has met many wonderful designers in her time in the industry, and in our Spotlight interviews we ask them about their work, their design journey, and what inspires them. In this interview with spoke with Maddy Maxey, the Founder and Technical Lead at LOOMIA, an e-textiles manufacturer and innovator.

Maddy has spent 5 years researching the flexible, creasable, drapable and washable circuitry layer that makes LOOMIA’s products so unique and versatile. She is dedicated to bringing flexible circuitry to industrial scales of production and to spreading the word about electronic textiles. Her portfolio includes e-textiles workshops and prototypes for The North Face, Google, Adidas, and more. We talked to her about the challenges of designing with e-textiles, applications for e-textiles that she’s excited about, and how she ended up at the intersection of design and technology.

Maddy Maxey industrial designer headshot
Maddy Maxey is an expert in e-textiles development and manufacturing. Photo courtesy of Maddy Maxey.

Q: What are you working on that’s interesting to you at the moment?

A: Right now what’s taking up a lot of my mental bandwidth is the business side of things, like How do we repeat our sales cycle and How do we price things? On the product side we are working on some new circuits for wearable technology applications that are really stretchy and thin, and hopefully people will like them. So that’s the fun product stuff and then I’m knee-deep in a lot of the business development stuff right now.

Q: Could you tell us about one of your favorite projects and share why it is important to you?

A: One of my favorite projects is a glove that we did for a robot for a company called Festo. This glove has a bunch of pressure sensors in it that give the robot a sense of touch so that when it grabs something, it knows how much pressure to apply. Robots don’t have skin, so when they grab something they don’t know if they’re actually grabbing it properly, or if it’s about to slip and fall, or if they’re going to smash it. That was a really fun and challenging project as an application of electronic textiles that people wouldn’t expect. People think about e-textiles and fashion or aesthetics, but I think some of the coolest applications of these materials are in places that have constant electromechanical problems, like robotics. It was a chance to show, Look at all the cool stuff these materials can do.

Q: Could you walk us through what e-textiles are?

A: People have different definitions but we [at LOOMIA] view them as an enabling technology that allows you to add  functionality to soft surfaces. We view e-textiles as circuits: very soft, flexible circuits. That they behave like fabric lets you functionalize that textile or soft surface at the end of the day. There’s a distinction between viewing an e-textile as a circuit or a fabric because the approach to making the material is very different. You can view it as a fabric that needs some electronic function or as a circuit that needs the mechanical properties of a fabric. We’re more in the circuit-that-moves-like-fabric category. That’s how we’ve gone about all of our development and testing, and everything that relates to the product.

Q: What are some of the key challenges you face as an e-textile designer?

A: There are lots and lots of challenges. Part of what’s tricky about electronics is that things go wrong and you don’t know why. You can’t see the problems. One of the hardest parts about e-textiles is that things mysteriously don’t work, and you don’t know if you have a bad connection, you don’t know if you’re getting noise from somewhere, you don’t know if it’s user error. Software and electronics have these crazy debugging processes. In a lot of other spaces you can just see what the problem is. If you have a shirt that doesn’t fit right, you can see the issues—it’s tight here, we need more space here—and know what to do. 

Another challenge is that the space is really new, so people don’t know that an e-textile could solve their problems. There’s  a translational aspect to these technologies. I’m talking to engineers who have never heard of an e-textile and highlighting why it might be useful for them, or talking to a designer who has heard of an e-textile and explaining why you can’t just put it on your design. You have to create the circuit, which needs to be customized for most applications.  So there are education and engineering challenges.

Q: What are some applications for e-textiles that excite you the most?

A: I’m super excited about automotive interior applications for electronic textiles. There’s some serious engineering involved but there’s also a lot of design. At the end of the day, you want the car’s user interface to look cool. You can get a wow factor but there’s a lot of rigor in getting there. I think it’s super interesting. I’m also excited about warming products in general. When you give someone a heated glove or heated pad and they put it on, there’s that instant feeling of, Oh wow, this feels nice! Then there are some healthcare and wellness applications. They’re specific to customers but I love it when we know a project could really help someone, and our technology can make it more comfortable or work better or whatever they’re looking for. I’m excited about those categories.

Q: Why did you choose to design for designers rather than consumers?

A: We’re not a team of marketers, and to have a successful consumer product—in most cases—you need to spend most of your time marketing. That’s not what we’re excited about or necessarily good at.  We are also all either engineers or designers or a combination of the two on our team, so we are able to work with engineers and designers and sell to engineers and designers, and understand their problems. To me it’s cool and feels useful versus if the everyday activity of the business was trying to sell another X to consumers. This is more where our hearts are: selling to engineers and designers and working on the B2B side.

Q: Which skills from your background in fashion design serve you well in your current work?

A: This is kind of a cliché but in my experience fashion was like: Make it work. You learn how to very quickly source materials, assess materials, work with them, put together colorways, and get all of the pieces in one place at one time for something to happen. A lot of that spirit is there, especially when we’re prototyping concepts. Okay how do we make this happen? Yes, we need to eventually get all the way to the end, to E, but let’s just tackle A to B first. We’ll make it work and then we can handle the next phase when it comes. Then there’s also the design portion. I do think people care about that, even if they say they don’t.  Even if customers say I don’t care what color it is or what it looks like, I do think there’s a visceral reaction to things that look nice. Putting that extra time in to make a design look nice is something that we always try to do. That also comes from my design training.

Q: Could you tell us about your path to this space at the intersection of design and technology?

A: I’ve always really loved making things. My dad was an aerospace engineer and he was, strangely enough, into making curtains and stuff for our house. He had a sewing machine and I loved using it. He saw that I really like to make stuff so he said that I should be a fashion designer or an architect. I thought, Okay, well, I’ll be a fashion designer because I can get started right now. I have this machine, why wait? Let’s go!

I interned and worked a lot in the industry. At design school I felt disenchanted because we were in sewing classes and I was like, I trained, I already know how to sew! I really wanted to learn some new stuff so I took a web development class to learn how to make websites for my design work. That’s what got me into the entrepreneurial and tech space. I realized that you can take fabric and make a shirt, or you can write some code and make a website. It’s like these little building blocks. I thought it was really exciting. 

That combination of things meant that I started getting hired for a lot of wearable technology and intersectional projects. That’s what led to my interest in making this scalable e-textile material for LOOMIA: I’d work on customer projects and they would be flimsy and couldn’t scale. And I thought, Maybe there’s a material that could help. I also went back to school and got my degree in material science and engineering.

Q: Women are a minority in design as well as technology, and women of color even more so. How has this influenced your experience in the industry?

A: It’s a little difficult because you never know if you’re not getting something because someone has assumptions about you, or if you just didn’t win the bid, or if you didn’t win the business for a very quantitative reason. I may honestly never know. But I think that there are certain things that I’ve really enjoyed, such as getting to work with a very female-leaning team and feeling like we take care of each other.  I don’t know what the alternate reality would be. I also know that there’s a part of me that doesn’t care if somebody judges me because of my race or how I look. I think our products are really good and I feel like I can convince them to give us a try anyway.

Q: What do you see in the future of e-textiles?

A: I really hope that e-textiles will be viewed as a circuit technology that’s in the toolbox. Right now, engineers making products might think, Oh, I can use a flex product or get printed circuit board. I really hope that at some point, they’ll realize, Oh or I could use an e-textile for this, because it would make sense for my application. If they could become a commonplace product development tool, that would be a really exciting direction for these materials.

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Checkerspot: Sustainable Prototyping Materials

At Interwoven Design we like to incorporate sustainability into our process wherever possible, and this includes sustainable prototyping. In this article we outline our casting process and review the Checkerspot Pollinator Kit, a renewable polyurethane resin that can be used for casting. Our clients rely on us to develop innovative solutions quickly and economically, which means that we move from sketches to prototyping quickly. We iterate potential design directions in-house to reduce turnaround time and keep product development costs low. Making urethane casting molds in-house allows us to do small batch prototyping and testing at a low cost before sending a more resolved solution out to a casting or injection-molding contractor, saving our clients time and money.

How does the casting process work?

Once a design direction has been finalized and is translated into 3D CAD (Computer Aided Design) software, we choose one of two casting strategies:

  1. We design and 3D print a mold based on the negative of the component
  2. We 3D print the component itself and then make a mold from it

The approach we choose is driven by the needs of the final component and the intended manufacturing material. If the final component is meant to be flexible or semi-rigid, like a high density foam part, we print the mold, as a flexible component can be removed from a rigid mold. If the final component is intended to be rigid, we print the part and cast a mold from it, as a flexible mold can be removed from a rigid component.

Once approach is set, the two-part urethane is mixed in the directed ratio to start the chemical reaction that cures the material, turning it from liquid to solid. If we want to tint our resin to more closely approximate the final product, we tint the parts before combining them as urethane can set quickly. The mix is poured carefully into the mold, trying to avoid bubbles that could detract from the final casting. The curing time can vary but it’s good to leave the casting for the maximum time specified as thinner elements will cure more quickly than thicker ones. In later stages of development the casting may be sanded, painted, or finished in some other way to make the prototype feel as close to the final product as possible.

Interwoven Design casting a mold for a prototype.
Casting approach 1: Our design team uses a 3D printed mold to cast a high density foam component for a backpack.

Incorporating sustainable practices

We consider environmental impact throughout the design process, pushing for the products we design to be sustainable to the greatest degree achievable for a given project. Considering sustainability at every stage of a product development cycle is essential to discovering opportunities for environmentally thoughtful design. These stages include research, form, construction, material selection and sourcing, manufacturing, and more. In early stages of a project, finding sustainable strategies for a development phase can take extra time and be restricted by budgets and practical constraints within the project. 

Access to sustainable materials that facilitate low volume in-house casting is a game changer, as the more closely we can approximate final materials, the more accurate our product testing becomes. Not only does it allow our designers and clients to hold, wear and interact with the product, but it allows for high-fidelity field testing and validation. Depending on the product category, a client may choose to test products in-house with their own teams or outsource testing to a team of engineers. The ability to quickly generate and iterate prototypes that closely or precisely mimic the final material keeps testing costs down and helps projects stay on schedule.

Checkerspot Pollinator Kit
The Checkerspot Pollinator Urethane Casting Kit features sustainable packaging and an algae-derived polyurethane resin.

Checkerspot performance casting materials

Checkerspot is a company that focuses on sustainable, high-performance casting materials, serving makers, designers and fabricators. Their innovative materials feature over 50% bio-based, renewable content, challenging a market saturated with oil-derived materials. They manufacture materials by “optimizing microbes to manufacture unique structured oils produced in nature, but not previously accessible at commercial scale.” Each organism contains oil that can be extracted, these lipids are the key component to Checkerspot’s biomaterials. Optimizing the qualities of sustainable materials like algal oil allows for peak product performance for the intended user as well as the environment.

The Checkerspot Pollinator Kit

We had the opportunity to put Checkerspot’s Pollinator Series Cast Urethane to the test in our studio. Our designer’s appreciated the thought put into the labeling of the kit components and instructions for the mixing and casting processes. We also liked the smooth user interaction with the sustainable packaging design. When we poured the mix into our intricate mold, the materials cured evenly and captured fine details, proving that there is no need to sacrifice performance when using sustainable alternatives to mainstream oil-derived casting products.

There you have it!

Here at Interwoven we enjoy pushing the boundaries between design, sustainability, material science and technology. Playing with new materials invigorates our design process as well as our studio-practice. Have you tried working with a new sustainable material recently? Tell us about it! Prototyping sustainably with 3D printing and bio-based material casting is just one way we can participate in the movement towards more responsible, environmentally considerate design. 

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A Q&A with Biomaterials Innovator Aaron Nesser

“The best moments of collaboration happen between teams and across disciplines.”

A Q&A with Biomaterials Innovator Aaron Nesser

Spotlight articles shine a light on designers and design materials we admire. Our founder and principal designer Rebeccah Pailes-Friedman has met many wonderful designers in her time in the industry, and in our Spotlight interviews we ask them about their work, their design journey, and what inspires them. In this interview we spoke with Aaron Nesser, the biomaterials innovator behind the seaweed-derived yarn, AlgiKnit, which started as a student project.

Aaron is a scientist and a designer, a powerful and unusual combination of skills that places him at a fascinating intersection in the design world and makes him the ideal person to ask about biomaterials. He is the CTO and co-founder of AlgiKnit, the flagship product of which is a compostable yarn made from kelp, one of the most regenerative organisms on earth. He is dedicated to sustainable efforts that promote a circular economy. We asked him about what he’s working on, what’s exciting to him about biomaterials, and his hopes for the future of the biomaterials industry.

Biomaterials expert Aaron Nesser poses for a headshot
Aaron Nesser is a biomaterials expert and the founder of AlgiKnit. Photo courtesy of Aaron Nesser.

Q: What are you working on that’s interesting to you at the moment? 

A: We’ve recently opened up a new office in North Carolina and it’s spawned all sorts of interesting projects. One of those projects has been sourcing furniture. We have a big space — over 14,000 ft 2— and the idea of outfitting it with all new furniture seemed a bit outlandish for a company like ours that is built around sustainability. Picking up a desk or a chair at a thrift store is one thing, but finding 10, 20, 30 of them, and making them fit into a cohesive style is a whole different thing. Apart from saving money and avoiding climate emissions, working with all of this second hand furniture has pushed us to come up with some really creative solutions to fit things together. It’s been a blast putting the puzzle together.

Q: How did your company start, and what were some of your early challenges in its development? 

A: In 2016, my co-founders, Aleksandra Gosiewski, Tessa Callaghan, and I started working together as part of the first Biodesign Challenge. It’s a competition where students across disciplines work together to create innovative applications of biotechnology. We all shared an interest in materials and in fashion’s impact on the environment, and wanted to do something about it. We won the challenge with a textile material derived from a seaweed biopolymer, and that’s how the idea behind AlgiKnit was born. 

One of the challenges we’ve faced comes from our sustainability-first mindset. Reacting to the 20th century mentality that valued performance above any other aspect, we started by defining sustainability parameters. We then experimented with materials that fit into that space even though they didn’t have the full performance we needed. Our challenge has been to use sustainable chemistry and process to hit performance metrics that a 20th-century chemist wouldn’t have thought possible without using synthetic additives. Our decisions over the last 5 years have reaffirmed our sustainability-first approach over and over again, and that has put the company in this amazing position where it would actually be much harder to compromise on sustainability than to maintain it. 

Q: Could you tell us about the material properties of your product and what makes it special?

A: Our product is a seaweed-derived yarn made from biopolymers of kelp. We leverage green chemistry to create a patented, drop-in solution that can be utilized in existing fiber, yarn and textile production infrastructure. Our process is grounded in the use and creation of clean, non-toxic inputs and outputs. This minimizes our footprint while maximizing the impact of our technology. Kelp is amazing. It’s a renewable and regenerative resource that fights ocean acidification and captures carbon. It has a look and feel that is similar to other natural fibers but our yarn differs from other biomaterials in that the majority of it is bio-based. It can also be used in conventional textile processing and production techniques, which is unusual for many biomaterials. 

Q: What do you see as the most compelling or promising applications of this innovative material? 

A: For sustainable biomaterials as a whole, my dream is to see them drop-in to any of today’s best products without fuss. We’ve built so many effective systems to make and sell products that we use everyday—from factories to supply chains to iconic designs. The most compelling aspect of our material, and materials like it, is that we won’t need to build an all-new system to realize the advantages of these sustainable biomaterials. It means that we can get to a sustainable future faster, without the time and emissions required to build completely new infrastructures and products. 

Q: Could you share some examples of biomaterial applications that are exciting to you?

A: I’m always interested in cool applications for seaweed and seaweed based-materials—one that comes to mind is a new company called Vyld. Founded by Ines Schiller, they are a start-up making the first tampon (or “kelpon”) from seaweed. Vyld is a great example of how to replace legacy materials with sustainable biomaterials and in the process make a product better, safer and more sustainable than what is available today. 

Another is Kelp Blue. They’ve designed an off-shore kelp farming system that they’re now in the process of building off the coast of Namibia. While kelp has an awesome ability to draw down carbon year after year, the kelp forest ecosystem is not naturally expanding. Kelp Blue plans to build infrastructure to create thousands of hectares of new kelp forest, that would draw down over a million tons of CO2 annually and produce raw materials to go towards producing sustainable products.

Q: Could you talk about what collaboration looks like in your work? 

A: The best moments of collaboration happen between teams and across disciplines. We all go so deep into our areas of expertise that it’s easy to come into collaborative work speaking somewhat different languages. My favorite parts of collaboration happen when a group reaches a new understanding or a process, a concept, even something as simple as a word that we all had understood to be something different. Creating the space to successfully navigate these interfaces of common understanding has been crucial to our success. Those moments of realization where everyone syncs up are deeply satisfying and fun.

Q: If I were a creator looking to use your material for a project, how would I go about it? 

A: We are currently exploring the use of our material in fashion (primarily in accessories and garments), home furnishings, and interiors – really, wherever textiles have an application. We want to work with designers, brands and partners who share our desire to transform the textile industry’s wasteful and harmful systems of production.

Q: I saw that you recently closed millions in Series A funding, what does that mean for you going forward? 

A: Our Series A was a huge accomplishment for us in terms of allowing us to scale the production of our material. In July, we opened our new headquarters in the Research Triangle Area of North Carolina. We are working to scale production at this new facility, first to support brand-pilots and then to grow to commercial-scale production. It’s a big step forward as we work to make our material more accessible. We are also actively hiring to build out our team in North Carolina, specifically around chemical engineering, textile science, and business development.

Q: What do you see in the future of the biomaterials industry? 

Biomaterials as a category will continue to grow—in our changing-climate world, where carbon will have an increasingly important role in decision making, biomaterials are the only class of materials that will be able to fill the gaps and continue growing. One challenge that we’ll have to sort out as an industry is how to ensure alignment between sustainability and biomaterials. Though the word has a feeling of newness and progress, some of the biggest biomaterials today are still part of the highly polluting ecosystem of legacy materials due to the way they are grown and produced. Part of a successful biomaterial future will be to elevate climate-positive biomaterials, and to shed any climate-harming material regardless if it is synthetic or bio-based.

Check out the rest of our Insight series to learn more about the design industry. Sign up for our newsletter and follow us on Instagram and LinkedIn for design news, multi-media recommendations, and to learn more about product design and development!