A Quick Guide to Design for Manufacturing

Great industrial designers do more than develop innovative ideas and create evocative sketches. They understand that to be successful, a product must be able to be successfully produced. The branch of design that deals with the many details that must come together for smart, successful industrial production is design for manufacturing. It’s a complex, ever-changing, and absolutely critical field of knowledge for designers. In this Insight article we will outline what design for manufacturing is and why it’s so important, and share some key considerations in the process.

What is Design for Manufacturing?

Designing for manufacturing is a strategic design approach that involves considering manufacturing constraints and requirements from the early stages of product design. It entails creating designs that are optimized for efficient and cost-effective production processes. Designers who practice designing for manufacturing ensure that the final product can be manufactured smoothly and at scale. This approach aims to eliminate or minimize potential manufacturing challenges, such as high production costs, assembly difficulties, and quality issues. By incorporating manufacturing considerations into the design process, designers can create products that are not only aesthetically appealing and functional but also feasible to manufacture in a timely and cost-efficient manner.

Why Design for Manufacturing?

Design for manufacturing is critical in industrial product development as it directly impacts the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and overall success of the manufacturing process. By considering manufacturing constraints and requirements early in the design phase, designers can optimize their designs to ensure smooth production, minimize errors, reduce production costs, and enhance product quality. Designing for manufacturing involves selecting appropriate materials, choosing the right production methods, and creating designs that are easy to assemble. Bonus points for designs that are also easy to disassemble. When design and manufacturing are closely aligned, it results in streamlined production processes, shorter lead times, improved product functionality, and increased customer satisfaction. Ultimately, a strong focus on design for manufacturing leads to successful products that can be manufactured efficiently, reliably, and at scale, giving companies a competitive edge in the market.

Key Considerations

Material Selection

Material selection is important in designing for manufacturing as it directly influences the functionality, performance, and cost of the final product. Choosing the right materials ensures that the design can be successfully manufactured and meets the desired specifications. Materials possess unique properties, such as strength, durability, flexibility, and thermal conductivity, which can significantly impact the manufacturing process and the overall performance of the product. Material selection also affects the cost of production, as different materials vary in terms of availability, sourcing, and manufacturing complexity. Innovative materials offer opportunities to stand out amidst competitors, providing unique properties that can change the landscape of a product category.

By carefully considering material properties, designers can optimize their designs for manufacturing, ensuring that the chosen materials align with production methods and constraints. This not only enhances the manufacturability of the product but also contributes to its quality, reliability, and market competitiveness.

A product that showcases the power of smart material selection in designing for manufacturing are Tesla’s car bodies. Tesla’s engineers and designers made meticulous choices when it came to selecting materials, resulting in a vehicle that combines performance, efficiency, and safety. The extensive use of lightweight yet strong materials such as aluminum for the body structure and carbon fiber for certain components helped reduce the car’s weight, enhancing its energy efficiency and range. 

Production Methods

The production method selected for a given product directly impacts the efficiency, cost, and quality of the manufacturing process. Different products or product components may require specific production methods such as casting, machining, molding, or additive manufacturing, each with its own advantages and limitations. Designers can ensure that their designs align with the capabilities and constraints of the chosen manufacturing processes when they plan ahead and choose their production method wisely. This enables streamlined production, reduces material waste, minimizes production errors, and enhances overall product quality. Making informed decisions about production method selection in designing for manufacturing is necessary for achieving successful and cost-effective production outcomes.

An example of a product that demonstrates the use of a smart production method is the Apple iPhone. Apple utilizes a combination of advanced manufacturing techniques, including precision CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining, to produce the intricate metal casings for their iPhones. CNC machining allows for highly accurate and repeatable manufacturing processes, resulting in precise and seamless components. This is how Apple achieves the sleek and seamless design of the iPhone. Apple’s adoption of automated assembly processes, such as robotic assembly and surface-mount technology (SMT) for circuit board assembly, ensures efficient and consistent production. By leveraging smart production methods, Apple can mass-produce iPhones with high quality, tight tolerances, and efficient manufacturing processes, meeting the demands of millions of customers worldwide.

Design for Assembly

Designing for assembly is another important aspect of designing for manufacturing. It focuses on optimizing the ease and efficiency of the assembly process. By considering assembly requirements and constraints during the design phase, designers can create products that are simple and intuitive to assemble, reducing the time, effort, and cost associated with manufacturing. Designing for assembly involves techniques such as minimizing the number of components, standardizing parts, and incorporating features that facilitate alignment and connection during assembly. By streamlining the assembly process, designers can enhance productivity, reduce the likelihood of errors or defects, and improve the overall quality of the final product. Designing for assembly can also lead to efficient disassembly and maintenance, which influences the repairability, sustainability, and the lifecycle of the product. 

An example of a product range that showcases smart design for assembly principles is the IKEA furniture range. IKEA uses a combination of clever design choices and standardized assembly methods to simplify the construction process for their customers. IKEA’s furniture typically features components that can be easily connected through mechanisms like cam locks and dowels, eliminating the need for complex tools or specialized skills. The use of clear, visual assembly instructions further enhances the user experience. By designing their furniture with assembly in mind, IKEA minimizes assembly time, reduces the risk of errors, and allows customers to efficiently construct their own furniture. This smart design for assembly approach not only aligns with IKEA’s commitment to affordable and accessible furniture but also contributes to their reputation for user-friendly products.


Design for manufacturing is critical for the success of any product. By considering factors such as material selection, production method selection, and design for assembly, designers can optimize their designs for efficient and cost-effective manufacturing processes. Careful material selection ensures that the chosen materials align with the product’s requirements, resulting in enhanced performance, durability, and cost-efficiency. Selecting appropriate production methods enables streamlined production, reduces waste, and improves overall product quality. Designing for assembly simplifies the construction process, reducing assembly time and errors while enhancing user experience. When designers prioritize design for manufacturing, they not only create products that are easier and more cost-effective to manufacture but also deliver better user experiences and improved product quality. Ultimately, design for manufacturing fosters innovation, reduces costs, and helps businesses stay competitive in a rapidly evolving market.

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Design Object Series N. 006

Marion Donovan and the Disposable Diaper

In our Design Object Series we highlight iconic objects designed by women. Thousands of objects that you use and appreciate everyday…surprise! Women designed them! Many of the contributions of women to design have been obscured if not erased throughout history. We want to do our part to counteract this effect by celebrating the women behind a range of objects that you’re sure to recognize. In this issue we salute Marion Donovan. Donovan’s determination and ingenuity led her to revolutionize the infant care industry with her most significant invention—the disposable diaper. 

Born in Fort Wayne, Indiana in 1917, Marion O’Brien grew up immersed in a world of machinery and invention. Her mother passed away when she was seven, leaving her with her father, an engineer and inventor. She moved east for college and eventually married James Donovan, settling down in Westport, Connecticut to raise a family. 

In the 1940s cloth diapers were standard, often covered in rubber pants. Donovan was dissatisfied with the system. She was endlessly changing wet crib sheets, and the rubber pants caused rashes. In 1946 she developed her own reusable, leak-proof diaper cover, sewing it at home out of shower curtains. Instead of safety pins, her design used metal snaps. This design, called the “Boater,” led to a version made with nylon parachute cloth with place to insert an absorbent diaper panel. 

Innovating on Innovation

In 1949, the diaper covers made their grand debut at New York’s prestigious Saks Fifth Avenue, where they were an immediate hit. In 1951, Marion Donovan’s patent for the diaper cover was granted. Despite her invention’s success, she didn’t stop there. Donovan embarked on an even more significant innovation—the disposable paper diaper. Designing such a diaper proved to be a challenge. The material needed to efficiently wick moisture away from the baby’s skin to prevent rashes, not just absorb and retain it.

After much experimentation, she developed a composition of sturdy, absorbent paper that met the demanding requirements of a diaper. The pioneering idea faced rejection from major U.S. paper companies, who dismissed it as unnecessary and impractical. It would be ten years before Victor Mills, the creator of Pampers, seized upon her idea and brought disposable diapers to the mass market.

Marion Donovan's "Diaper Wrap," patent illlustration
Marion Donovan’s “Diaper Wrap,” patented June 12, 1951. U.S. Patent 2,556,800

Marion Donovan’s creative genius extended beyond her groundbreaking diaper inventions. Throughout her career, she accumulated over a dozen patents and worked as a product development consultant. Like so many other women design pioneers, it wasn’t until her passing in 1998 that she received the recognition she deserved. Although Marion Donovan’s name may not be instantly recognizable, parents worldwide owe her a debt of gratitude for the convenience and comfort her inventions have brought to their lives. Donovan’s journey as an inventor demonstrates the power of persistence and the ability of design to challenge societal norms. 

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AI and Creativity in Design

The intersection of AI and creativity

Our generation has a front row seat to the head-on collision of the wild world of artificial intelligence and the infinite realm of human creativity. The intersection yields new ideas and art forms, inspires designers to push boundaries, and revolutionizes the way we approach design. It’s a collaboration that can potentially amplify the power of both AI and human creativity, opening up a universe of possibilities, both promising and ominous, that we are only beginning to explore. In this Insight article we are going to talk about artificial intelligence in a specific realm of creativity: design. AI isn’t just crunching numbers and analyzing data. Through access to vast stores of information, AI can unearth hidden patterns, uncover trends, and present designers with fresh perspectives might not have been considered otherwise. At its best, it prompts designers to think beyond the obvious and explore uncharted territories. There are many levels of intervention, from tools that generate options within a set of given constraints to tools that analyze complex briefs to offer smart, targeted suggestions to tools that can generate complete, considered designs.

Basic AI-Powered Tools

AI-powered design tools have been around for a long time, but they are getting reframed with the growing understanding of AI. These tools can offer powerful short-cuts in the creative world, streamlining workflows and elevating design quality. They can analyze large amounts of data, identify patterns, and suggest design elements. Tools like automated color palette generators that create harmonious combinations and intelligent layout assistants that optimize space have the potential to save time and effort, rapidly running through options that the designer can keep or discard. 

AI Tools for Creativity and Productivity

One good example of an AI tool that stimulates creativity in the design process is Adobe Sensei. Powered by machine learning algorithms, Adobe Sensei is integrated into various Adobe Creative Cloud applications, such as Photoshop, Illustrator, and InDesign. This AI tool analyzes large datasets of images, fonts, and design elements to provide designers with intelligent suggestions and recommendations. It can automatically generate alternative design options, offer font pairing suggestions, and even provide automated image enhancements. By leveraging the power of AI, Adobe Sensei helps designers explore new ideas and experiment with different design directions. This can greatly increase the output of a designer and the number of options available to them.

AI tools for brainstorming and ideation

AI-based brainstorming and ideation tools are changing the way we generate and explore ideas. These tools leverage the power of artificial intelligence to enhance the creative process. By analyzing data, trends, and patterns, AI algorithms can provide designers and teams with valuable insights and inspiration. These tools can suggest unique combinations, identify emerging concepts, and even predict potential user preferences. They have the potential to overcome creative blocks, spark new connections, and encourage out-of-the-box thinking. At their best, they can help to fuel the ideation process, ultimately leading to more innovative and impactful design outcomes.

An example of an AI-based brainstorming and ideation tool is Mural. Mural is a digital collaboration platform that integrates AI-powered features to facilitate brainstorming and idea generation. These features can analyze user input and provide real-time suggestions, prompts, and inspiration to fuel the creative process. It offers a range of interactive visual templates, virtual sticky notes, and design thinking frameworks to facilitate ideation sessions. By leveraging AI, Mural enables teams to collaborate remotely and harness the collective creativity of its members. It encourages diverse thinking, breaks down geographical barriers, and enhances productivity in the ideation phase. 

Successful collaborations with AI

AI can also rise above tool status to serve as an active collaborator in the design process. An example of a successful collaboration between AI and designers is the partnership between NVIDIA and Autodesk. NVIDIA, known for its advancements in AI and graphics processing, collaborated with Autodesk, a leading software company, to develop a tool called Project Dreamcatcher. This AI-powered design tool combines generative design algorithms with human creativity to power the design process.

Project Dreamcatcher enables designers to input design goals and constraints, and the AI algorithm generates design options based on those parameters. The generated designs are then evaluated by the designer, who can provide feedback and further refine the options. This iterative collaboration between the AI and the designer results in optimized designs that meet specific requirements while incorporating innovative and unexpected elements. The tool augments the designer’s creativity and problem-solving abilities, allowing them to push the boundaries of what’s possible. This collaboration between AI and designers not only accelerates the design process but also yields designs that are both functional and aesthetically pleasing. It demonstrates how AI can enhance human creativity and provide designers with the tools to generate innovative solutions.

AI-generated design

So far we’ve seen algorithms that can generate art, craft logos, and even design interiors. AI is redefining the creative industry as we know it. One interesting case study of AI-generated design is the project by the team at OpenAI called DALL-E. They developed an AI model that can generate surreal images from text prompts. With DALL-E, you describe an image you want to see, like “a purple cat with butterfly wings sitting on a rainbow,” and the AI algorithm will generate a unique image that matches your description, though not always in a way you can predict. This innovative application of AI-generated design encourages designers to bring their wildest ideas to life. This is a good example of how AI is pushing the boundaries of creativity and generating original, or, controversially, semi-original designs.

Potential concerns and challenges

While AI has tremendous potential in the field of design, there are also valid concerns and challenges that need to be addressed. One major concern is the potential loss of human creativity and originality. As AI becomes more involved in the design process, there is a risk that designs may become formulaic and lack the unique touch of human ingenuity. Another challenge is the ethical implications of AI-generated designs. Issues such as intellectual property rights, ownership of AI-generated creations, and potential biases embedded in the algorithms used by AI systems need careful consideration. Additionally, the impact on employment is a concern, as some fear that AI could replace human designers, leading to job displacement. Lastly, ensuring the transparency and interpretability of AI-generated designs is crucial, as designers and users need to understand how AI arrived at specific design decisions. Addressing these concerns and challenges is essential to foster a responsible and beneficial integration of AI in the design industry.


The transformative potential of AI in design is undeniably remarkable. AI has the power to revolutionize the creative process, unlocking new realms of imagination, and enabling designers to push boundaries and explore uncharted territories. From AI-generated designs that inspire to intelligent tools that stimulate creativity, AI is reshaping the design landscape. That said, it is crucial to approach AI in design with thoughtful consideration, addressing concerns around originality, ethics, employment, and transparency. By embracing AI as a tool that complements human creativity rather than replaces it, we can harness its transformative power to create designs that are not only aesthetically pleasing but also sustainable, user-centric, and innovative. As AI continues to evolve, designers must embrace responsible innovation, collaboration, and ethical guidelines to fully harness its potential for the betterment of the design industry and society as a whole.

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Networking, Resilience, and Balance

Lessons from Successful Women Design Entrepreneurs

From designing products that we use every day to crafting the tools we need to live a more sustainable life; industrial design is all around us. While this field has traditionally been male-dominated, women are shaking things up and making a name for themselves in the industry. In fact, some of the most innovative and exciting industrial design studios today are run by women! So, grab your sketchbook and let’s take a closer look at some of the badass women who have started their own industrial design studios. Get ready to be inspired!

The Whys

One of the things that I am curious about is how and why so many women have opened their own practice. I asked a group of successful women design entrepreneurs about what led them to open their own studios.

For Isis Shiffer, founder and design lead, Spitfire Industry in Brooklyn, NY, her love for working with diverse clients and teams from various disciplines was likely a strong motivator for her to start her own studio. By owning her own business, she could have greater control over the types of projects she takes on and the clients she works with. This can be important for individuals who have a passion for a specific type of work or working with certain types of people.

On the other hand, the founder and creative director of Level Design in San Francisco, Nichole Roulliac, had the desire to lead her own studio and bring a new energy and perspective to the design industry that highlights the importance of representation and diversity in the workplace. ‘As a female founder, I saw firsthand how important it was to create a space that not only celebrated diversity but actively sought it out. I wanted to build a company that valued diverse perspectives and ideas, and that actively sought to create a more inclusive industry,’ said Roulliac. This aligns with a larger trend of women starting their own businesses to create more opportunities for themselves and to challenge traditional gender roles and expectations. Both designers recognized the need for a fresh perspective and decided to take the leap to become design entrepreneurs.

Jennifer Linnane’s experience as a successful solo-preneur and industrial designer highlights the benefits of being a freelancer, such as the flexibility to work on a variety of interesting projects and to build a successful business around one’s unique skills. This flexibility and independence can be appealing for many individuals who want to take control of their career and work on projects that align with their values and goals.

The Challenges

However, running a consulting practice or starting a business also comes with its own set of challenges. One of the biggest challenges is finding and securing clients, which often requires developing new skills such as networking, branding, and communicating effectively with clients. As Brittany Gene of Brittany Gene Design points out, scoping projects and learning how to communicate and contract with clients is crucial for success.

Building a strong network of fellow industrial designers and professionals outside of the design industry can also be an important factor in building a successful practice. This can help to provide support, advice, and potential referrals for new projects. It’s important for entrepreneurs to continuously develop new skills and maintain connections with others in their industry to stay up to date with the latest trends and techniques and to keep their business growing.

Overall, while becoming a design entrepreneur can offer many opportunities, it also requires hard work, dedication, consistent and clear communication skills and a willingness to continuously learn and adapt to new challenges.

Jennifer Linnane emphasizes the importance of confidence when it comes to freelancing, as you are essentially presenting yourself as an expert in your field highlighting your ability to partner with your client to deliver results. Additionally, resilience is necessary because not every day will go as planned. This highlights the need for adaptability and the ability to handle challenges and setbacks to succeed as a freelancer or design entrepreneur.

As the founder and principal of Interwoven Design Group, I have found that balancing innovation with practical business requirements and deadlines can be a challenge. Jen Linnane, who shares similar beliefs, argues that innovation and creativity can sometimes conflict with predictability, which is necessary for meeting business requirements, budgets, and deadlines. As a design entrepreneur, having both strong design skills and business acumen is essential for success. Achieving a balance between these two areas is crucial for running a thriving firm.

In summary, while becoming a design entrepreneur can offer many opportunities, it also requires hard work, dedication, consistent and clear communication skills, and a willingness to continuously learn and adapt to a new challenges. Freelancers and design entrepreneurs alike need confidence and resilience, and finding a balance between innovation and practical business requirements is essential for success.

The Hows

When doing researching for this article, the most common question asked by people who want to open their own firm ask is how to find new clients. The top answer from successful design entrepreneurs was networking. Isia Shiffer explains that 80% of her clients come from word of mouth and repeat business. Jeanette Numbers emphasizes the importance of building authentic connections with people to foster good business relationships and ultimately good projects and Nichole Roulliac expands her network by asking her contacts to connect her with their contacts. Most of the women entrepreneurs I spoke with spend on average 10-12 hours per week expanding their networks and fielding requests for info and proposals.

If you’re considering starting your own practice, this group has some great advice. Jeanette Numbers suggests surrounding yourself with a strong team and having faith in your team members. Brittany Gene advises investing in yourself and the tools you use every day. Nichole Roulliac stresses the importance of perseverance and staying true to yourself. Additionally, having a unique point of view and asking the “whys” rather than just the “hows” is important, according to Numbers.

However, even with a great support network and the right tools, burnout is a common issue among entrepreneurs. Isis Shiffer reminds us that it’s important to take breaks to recharge our brains, and Nichole Roulliac suggests being part of a strong network of allies who can support each other during difficult times.

Jeanette Numbers says “surround yourself with a strong team, have faith in your team members and Keep moving forward”.  Brittany Gene adds “invest in yourself and the tools you use every day. It’s so easy to pick a cheaper option when buying tools but it can be the costliest in the long run.”  supporting this adds Roulliac is to have perseverance and staying true to yourself.  And Numbers goes on to say it’s important to have a unique point of view and strong perseverance, that she thrives on asking the whys, not just the how’s. 

But even with setting up a great support network and investing in the right tools and equipment Shiffer adds that “Burnout is common, real, and avoidable.  A lot of entrepreneurs have the sense that if they aren’t always working, they’re somehow failing, but this isn’t the case at all. You need to let your brain recharge to be good at any job.”

Roulliac, “Industrial design is a rollercoaster. Like any service industry, from hospitality to retail, there will be a huge, overwhelming rush of work – then a silence while you await the next storm.” “One thing that will help you through is being part of a strong, genuine network of allies who can support one another when times are tough”

Your Future Awaits

So there you have it, folks! From Brooklyn, NY to San Francisco and places in between, these badass women are changing the game in industrial design. They’re not only creating innovative products and solutions, but they’re also challenging the traditional gender roles and expectations in the industry.

Whether you’re thinking of starting your own design studio or just looking to learn more about industrial design, take some inspiration from these women. Remember to network, invest in yourself and your tools, stay true to your unique point of view, and don’t forget to take breaks to recharge!

Who knows, maybe one day we’ll be reading about your success story and how you’ve helped to transform the world of industrial design. So grab your sketchbook, put on some tunes, and let’s get to work!

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Design Object Series N. 005

Hedy Lamarr and Wi-Fi

In our Design Object Series we highlight iconic objects designed by women. Thousands of objects that you use and appreciate everyday…surprise! Women designed them! Many of the contributions of women to design have been obscured if not erased throughout history. We want to do our part to counteract this effect by celebrating the women behind a range of objects that you’re sure to recognize. In this issue we salute Hedy Lamarr, a Hollywood star who possessed a brilliant mind that defied societal expectations. She developed the spread-spectrum radio technology that would later make wireless systems possible.

At the height of her Hollywood career, Hedy Lamarr was celebrated as “the most beautiful woman in the world.” However, her true legacy extends far beyond her looks. In the 1940s, amidst the chaos of World War II, Lamarr quietly invented a groundbreaking technology that would lay the foundation for numerous wireless innovations we rely on today, including Bluetooth, GPS, and cellphone networks.

18 DO 2023 - Wifi
18 DO 2023 – Wifi

An Inventor is Born

Lamarr, born Hedwig Kiesler in Austria, harbored a lifelong fascination with science. When the war approached she fled Austria as well as her marriage to a wealthy arms dealer. She arranged to be on the same ship as Louis Mayer of Metro-Goldwin-Mayer (MGM), and convinced him to offer her a contract. She rose to stardom quickly but the war effort was never far from her mind. 

Though widely admired, the Hollywood lifestyle failed to satisfy Lamarr’s intellectual curiosity. Once her responsibilities on set were complete, she engaged in intellectual pursuits and enjoyed gatherings with like-minded friends. Lamarr possessed a visionary mindset, constantly exploring ways to fix and enhance various aspects of the world. She installed a drafting table in her home, dedicating her spare time to inventing.

Photo: Wyld Networks

Doing Her Part

At a Hollywood dinner party she met composer George Antheil, who was then working on an unconventional symphony featuring synchronized player pianos. Lamarr wondered, if one could get these pianos to continuously synchronize in unpredictable patterns, why couldn’t the same be done for radio signals? During World War II, Lamarr’s concerns about the safety of Allied forces deepened. The attacks by German submarines on passenger cruise liners compelled her to channel her inventive energy toward devising a solution. She focused her attention on the shortcomings of torpedoes, powerful weapons that often lacked accuracy as their guidance systems could be jammed.

Lamarr recognized that for a torpedo’s guidance to be effective, the radio signal guiding it had to be immune to enemy interference. Inspired by Antheil’s synchronized pianos, Lamarr developed the concept of “frequency hopping.” She envisioned a system in which the radio signal would rapidly and randomly hop across various frequencies, making it difficult for adversaries to jam or intercept. Together, Lamarr and Antheil submitted their proposal for a “Secret Communication System” to the National Inventors Council. In 1942, they were awarded a patent for their invention. Though the idea was deemed viable, the U.S. Navy ultimately dismissed the potential of the technology and it was dormant for several years in their archives.

Belated Acknowledgement of Achievement

It wasn’t until after the war that Lamarr’s technology resurfaced. The Navy recognized the need to safeguard their sonobuoy systems, which used sonar to detect submarines and transmit the information to airplanes. To prevent enemy forces from jamming the communication between the buoys and the planes, they needed an effective countermeasure. Lamarr’s frequency-hopping technology proved to be the missing piece of the puzzle. The Navy integrated her invention into the sonobuoys, effectively creating a jam-proof communication system. From there, the significance of Lamarr’s contribution began to gain traction, and offshoots of her technology found a wide range of military and civilian applications.

Today, the impact of Lamarr’s invention is evident in the ubiquitous presence of wireless communication technologies. Her visionary frequency-hopping concept facilitated the development of modern wireless networks. Yet, for many years, Lamarr’s tremendous contributions were overshadowed and undervalued. It wasn’t until the 1990s, when Lamarr was in her early 80s, that her critical invention gained the recognition it deserved. A pioneer in wireless communications for computers stumbled upon Lamarr’s patent and was astounded by its significance. He initiated efforts to acknowledge her achievement. When informed of the award, her response was, “Well, it’s about time.” 

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